RADON





Radon 3362
Photo by: BLACK ME

Radon

Overview

Radon is the last member of the noble gas family. The noble gases are the elements that make up Group 18 (VIIIA) of the periodic table. The periodic table is a chart that shows how chemical elements are related to one another. The noble gases get their name because they are inactive chemically. They combine with other substances under only extreme conditions. Their tendency to avoid contact with other elements was seen by early chemists as "royal" or "noble" behavior. The noble gases are also called the inert gases.

Radon is a radioactive element. A radioactive element is one that gives off radiation and breaks down to form a different element. Radon is formed when heavier radioactive elements, like uranium and thorium, break down. In turn, radon breaks down to form lighter elements, such as lead and bismuth.

SYMBOL
Rn

ATOMIC NUMBER
86

ATOMIC MASS
222.0176

FAMILY
Group 18 (VIIIA)
Noble gas

PRONUNCIATION
RAY-don

Radon is a well-know air pollutant today. It is formed in rocks and soil where uranium is present. As a gas, radon tends to drift upward out of the ground. If a house or building has been built above soil containing uranium, radon may collect in the structure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regards the presence of radon in homes and offices as a serious health problem.

Discovery and naming

Radioactivity was discovered in 1896 by French physicist Antoine-Henri Becquerel (1852-1908). Becquerel observed that a photographic plate was exposed even in the dark when placed next to an ore called pitchblende. The explanation for this phenomenon was offered two years later by a colleague of Becquerel's, Polish-French chemist Marie Curie (1867-1934). Curie said that something in the pitchblende was giving off radiation. The radiation was similar to light in some ways. But it was also different, since it could not be seen. Curie suggested the name of radioactivity for this behavior.

Over the next decade, many scientists worked to find out more about radioactive materials. Curie and her husband, Pierre Curie (1859-1906), isolated two new radioactive elements, polonium and radium. In 1900, German physicist Friedrich Ernst Dorn (1848-1916) found a third radioactive element.

Dorn found this element because of an observation made by Curie. When radium is exposed to air, the air becomes radioactive. The Curies did not study this phenomenon further. However, Dorn did. Eventually he discovered that radium produces a gas when it breaks apart. The radioactive gas escapes into the air. The radioactivity of air exposed to radium is caused by this gas.

At first, Dorn called this radioactive gas radium "emanation". The term emanation refers to something that has been given off. Radium emanation, then, means something given off by radium. Dorn also considered the name of niton for the gas. This name comes from the Latin word nitens, which means "shining." Eventually, however, scientists decided on the modern name of radon. The name is a reminder of the source from which the gas comes, radium.

The proper location of radon in the periodic table was determined by Scottish chemist Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916). Ramsay was also involved in the discovery of three other noble gases, neon, krypton, and xenon. In 1903, Ramsay was able to determine the atomic weight of radon. He showed that it belonged beneath xenon in Group 18 (VIIIA) of the periodic table.

French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel.
French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel.

Credit for the discovery of radon is often given to other scientists as well. In 1899, Robert B. Owens announced the presence of a radioactive gas that he named thoron. In 1903, French chemist Andre Louis Debierne (1874-1949) made a similar discovery. He named the gas actinon. Certainly, some credit for the discovery of element 86 can be shared among all these men.

Physical properties

Radon is a colorless, odorless gas with a boiling point of -61.8°C (-79.2°F) . Its density is 9.72 grams per liter, making it about seven times as dense as air. It is the densest gas known. Radon dissolves in water and becomes a clear, colorless liquid below its boiling point. At even lower temperature, liquid radon freezes. As a solid, its color changes from yellow to orangish-red as the temperature is lowered even further. It is a dramatic sight since it also glows because of the intense radiation being produced.

Chemical properties

Radon was long thought to be chemically inert. The term inert means incapable of reacting with other substances. In the early 1960s, however, a number of chemists found ways of making compounds of the noble gases. They did so by combining a noble gas with a very active element. The element generally used was fluorine, the most active chemical element. The result was the formation of noble gas compounds. The first radon compound to be produced was radon fluoride (RnF).

Radon: the secret visitor

A dangerous stranger may be hiding in your home. You won't be able to see, smell, or hear the stranger. But it has the ability to cause cancer. That dangerous stranger is radon gas.

Radon is produced naturally when uranium breaks down. Uranium is a radioactive element that occurs naturally in the Earth's crust. It is a fairly common element and could be in the ground below your own home.

When uranium breaks down, it produces many different elements, including radium, thorium, bismuth, and lead. Hone of these elements is a threat since they all remain in the ground. But uranium also forms radon when it breaks down. And radon is a gas. It can float upward, out of the earth, and into the basement of your home.

In some respects, radon is a serious health hazard. It gives off radiation that can kill cells. But radon does not have a very long half life. It breaks down and disappears fairly quickly.

The problem is that it breaks down into elements that are solid. These include polonium-214, polonium-218, and lead-214. These elements are more of a threat to your health. If you inhale them, they may stick to the lining of your lungs. While there, they give off radiation. The radiation can kill or damage cells. The final result of radon escaping into a building can be a variety of respiratory problems. Respiratory problems are those affecting the lungs and other parts of the system used for breathing. The most serious of these respiratory problems is lung cancer.

Scientists today think that radon may cause as many as 20,000 cases of lung cancer per year. If so, that would make radon the second leading cause of this disease, after smoking. The people most in danger from radon are those who also smoke. These people are threatened both by radon and by cigarette smoke.

The EPA has studied the problem of radon in homes and offices. The agency believes that up to 8 million homes may have levels of radon that are too high. About 20 percent of all homes the agency has studied have high radon levels.

Fortunately, it's easy to find out if radon is lurking in your home. Radon test kits can be purchased easily and at low cost. Anyone can learn how to use one in a few minutes. If radon is present, some simple steps can be taken to reduce the danger the element presents. For example, any cracks in the foundation of a house can be sealed. By doing so, radon gas will be prevented from seeping into the house. Also, some method for circulating air should always be available. A fan or an air conditioner, for example, will insure that fresh air is constantly brought into a house and "stale" air (containing radon gas) is removed.

Occurrence in nature

The abundance of radon in air is too small to be estimated. Some radon is always present because it is formed during the breakdown of uranium and radium.

Isotopes

Three isotopes of radon occur in nature—radon-219, radon-220, and radon-222. Isotopes are two or more forms of an element. Isotopes differ from each other according to their mass number. The number written to the right of the element's name is the mass number. The mass number represents the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of the element. The number of protons determines the element, but the number of neutrons in the atom of any one element can vary. Each variation is an isotope. At least 18 other radioactive isotopes of radon have been produced artificially.

All isotopes of radon have short half-lives and do not remain in the atmosphere very long. The half life of a radioactive element or isotope is the time it takes for half of a sample of the element or isotope to break down. The radon isotope with the longest half life is radon-222 at only 2.8 days. If 10 grams of radon-222 were prepared today, only 5 grams would remain 2.8 days from now. After another 2.8 days, only 2.5 grams would be left. Within a month, it would be difficult to detect any of the isotope.

Extraction

Radon is produced during the breakdown of radium. It is obtained commercially by the following method. A compound of radium is placed under water. Gases given off by the radium compound are collected in a glass tube. Oxygen, nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases are removed from the gas in the tube. The gas that remains is pure radon.

Uses

The uses for radon all depend on the radiation it gives off. That radiation cannot be seen, smelled, tasted, or detected by any other human sense. However, a number of instruments have been invented for detecting this radiation. For example, a Geiger counter is a device that makes a clicking sound or flashes a light when radiation passes through it.

As a solid, radon changes its color from yellow to orangish-red as its temperature decreases. It is a dramatic sight since it also glows because of the intense radiation being produced.

One use of radon based on this principle is in leak detection. An isotope of radon is added to a flow of gas or liquid through

A handheld Geiger counter, used to detect radiation. Together with an isotope of radon, leaks can be located.
A handheld Geiger counter, used to detect radiation. Together with an isotope of radon, leaks can be located.
a tube. A Geiger counter can be passed along the outside of the tube. If radiation is present, the Geiger counter makes a sound or flashes a light. The presence of radiation indicates a leak in the tube. This principle is applied in many other systems to study materials that cannot actually be seen.

Radon was once commonly used to treat cancer too. The radiation it gives off kills cancer cells. However, the element must be used with great care because radiation can kill healthy cells as well. In fact, the bad side-effects of radiation therapy are caused by the killing of healthy cells by radiation. Today, radon is not as widely used for the treatment of cancer. More efficient isotopes have been found that are easier and safer to work with.

Compounds

Chemists are trying to make compounds of radon, but the task is difficult. One compound that has been made is radon fluoride. In any event, such compounds are laboratory curiosities and have no commercial uses.

Health effects

Because of the radiation it produces, radon is a highly dangerous material. It is used only with great caution. Radon is especially dangerous because it is inhaled, exposing fragile tissues to penetrating radiation.



User Contributions:

sean
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Jul 29, 2007 @ 9:21 pm
thank you this has helped me with my assingment on radon alot
Ashley
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Oct 25, 2008 @ 1:13 pm
Thank you so much. This has helped me so much on radon - I had to type a 15 page paper on this. I'm so grateful. I'm totally going to cite you. Thanks for everything. - I'm going to tell all of my classmates about this...

-Ashley
joshua
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Dec 10, 2008 @ 4:16 pm
oh my god. thank you who ever rote this. i will put your website on the bottom of my essay to show you as a good source. i needed this so bad. it took for ever to find stuff on radon. thank you thank you thank you
monika thakur
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Dec 31, 2008 @ 2:02 am
Thanks you very much...these pages helped me a lot in the completion of my project named as radon exahalation in building materials
dillon
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Apr 7, 2009 @ 8:08 am
it was varry good for my project radon thank you:]
dakota Feenstra
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Apr 20, 2009 @ 4:16 pm
thanx so much this got me an a 4 my keynote project
Ashley
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Aug 31, 2009 @ 9:09 am
hello,
thanks alot. this site helped me with my powerpoint on radon.
but i would like to know a little more like behavior bonding
Cullen
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Oct 12, 2009 @ 3:15 pm
Thank you im currently doing a poster on Radon and this has and will Help me alot most of the other things i found were either how to get rid of radon or how to test for it!!!!!! thank you wonce again so much!!!! :)
belinda
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Oct 20, 2009 @ 10:22 pm
i love this, it actually helped me a lot, i spent hours searching for something like this, thanks again
Anthony
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Nov 29, 2009 @ 8:20 pm
this cite is EXACTLY what I needed to cover every part of my project. Thank you alot for who ever wrote this. =)
Premita Oli
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Dec 13, 2009 @ 4:16 pm
Thank you
This has helped me to finish my project.
bri
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Dec 19, 2009 @ 7:19 pm
thx so much! this information helped alot. my science teacher decided to give us a project due monday on whatever element you choose using as much info as possible... my elemnt was radon and this website definitly helped alot.! thx a bunch =]
Dijah
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Jan 5, 2010 @ 6:18 pm
thanks. alot oin helping me on my homework. i just dont see where radon got its name from. please help me out
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Feb 16, 2010 @ 9:09 am
Thank you for a fantastic site. I will use you and include your site on future papers.
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Mar 22, 2010 @ 10:10 am
I love this site. I have a radon project and this site was amazing! Please keep up the good work.
ANON
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Apr 30, 2010 @ 11:11 am
This is the most helpful website I've found so far for my Radon report.
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May 19, 2010 @ 2:14 pm
thank you you gave me the definition of radon for my school project.
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Dec 11, 2010 @ 12:12 pm
Radon gas has radioactive properties and can contribute to acute respiratory health risks, such as lung cancer (one in 20 will develop lung cancer due to elevated exposure1). This is especially true if you are a smoker or are exposed to second hand smoke on a consistent basis.
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Jan 12, 2011 @ 10:10 am
Wow! Thank you so much for all this information. I have to write a 20 page essay about radon and the effects of radon and I must say this was such a help! And I will definately be siting your work in my essay!
Victoria Elliott
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Jan 17, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
thank you so much for this information! even though i am required to have three sources, you have covered all of the bases that i need for my project! thank you so much!
Thankful Person
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Jan 30, 2011 @ 2:14 pm
This site really helped me with my project for school. It gave me everything that I needed to know. I used some other sites before this, but they didnt give me EVERYTHING that I needed, so thank you to whoever got this information and wrote it down.
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Mar 17, 2011 @ 1:13 pm
Hey
This website was the bomb. i aced my test and my project is almost complet!!
Elizabeth!!
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Mar 28, 2011 @ 11:23 pm
Aha!! This Actually helped me immensely! It has all the information I'm missing and it's a great source to come back to! :D
jenni
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Nov 16, 2011 @ 7:19 pm
ohh emm gee! this completly helped me with my element poster project on Radon. Thank you so much! i hope i get an A+ !!(:
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Nov 23, 2011 @ 11:11 am
Hi i am going to use information on this article about physical and chemical properties and would like information on its referencing structure like who wrote this information,and what year was it wrote,what city for example.Please get in touch
Latero Piensolado
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Feb 4, 2012 @ 10:10 am
Some companies are calling Radon220 "thoron"
There is a claim that this is a "Historical" name
My claim is that it is a modern neologism which "Sounds cool"

Is there some reference to this somewhere?
Wiki simply directs it to Radon but no other information is given
haley
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Feb 17, 2012 @ 12:12 pm
Thank you so much! You really helped me out with my paper and 3-D element model for science class! I could'nt find enough physical and chemical properties of Radon on other any site that provided the Periodic Table of Elements information. All the information was like,"BAM!", right in your face! I'll suggest this site to my friends and other people I know that will need answers like mine and a terrific site like this. Thanks a lot again.
Michael
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Oct 16, 2012 @ 9:21 pm
This web-page helped me so much. I have been searching for a page with all the information for hours and then i found this and finished my project in 20 minutes.

Thank you so much to whoever wrote this
-Michael
Julie
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Dec 3, 2012 @ 3:15 pm
thanxs so much this has helped me do my chemistry project and learn more about this element. i will definitly use your website again.
Julie
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Dec 3, 2012 @ 3:15 pm
How do you get your house tested to see if you have radon in it or not & if you have it in your house how do you get rid of it?? cause my rooms in the basement and my parents said they haven't had the radon checked in our house since we moved in which was like 10 years ago.
Tuukka
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Jun 17, 2013 @ 1:13 pm
Hi,
I saw a little mistake in your text. According ie.lbl.gov and other sources half life of Radon-222 is 3,8 days, not 2,8.
Lauren
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Oct 26, 2013 @ 9:09 am
OMGSH This helped me so much my teacher will be so happy im only in 8th grade
SAHANA
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Aug 2, 2014 @ 10:10 am
I was tensed about my project, but this article saved my life.
Luke Kama
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Oct 21, 2014 @ 4:04 am
Thank you, this artical really helps me alot in my assignment. I am very grateful of this article.
Luke Kama
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Oct 21, 2014 @ 5:05 am
Thank you, this artical really helps me alot in my assignment. I am very grateful of this article.

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